Comentarios sobre la Coatlicue recuperada durante las excavaciones realizadas para la construcción del Metro.


  • Sobre el recurso

    Título(s)
    Título
    Comentarios sobre la Coatlicue recuperada durante las excavaciones realizadas para la construcción del Metro.
    Anales del Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia. Num. 50 Tomo II (1969) Séptima Época (1967-1976)

    Abstract
    This sculpture (plates I-V) was discovered in September, 1967, during excavations carried out in Mexico City's "Metro". Its total height is 93 cm., its length 57 cm., width 37, and weight approximately 530 k. Today it is on display in the Mexica Hall of the National Museum of Anthropology, where it is called Coatlicue. Coatlicue (also called Toci and by many other names) was the Mother Goddess, having given birth to the Sun, the Moon, the Stars, and all the other gods. She was also associated with the earth, fertility, life, and death. This statue is covered with a wealth of symbols. The face is that of Tlaltecuhtli, earth deity, as seen in plate VI. In different sources Tlaltecuhtli is referred to as female or as male, the latter in the form of a toad-like monster. This monster is carved on the base of the monumental Coatlicue and is seen in the Codex Borbonicus 16 (fig. 1). In the Codex Borgia 34 (fig. 2) Tlaltecuhtli is represented as an old woman with wrinkles around her mouth. The lines on the statue's face represent both these wrinkles and facial paint: Xochiquetzal (the young Mother Goddess, therefore Coatlicue) wears red paint on the Iower part of her face (fig. 3). The bisexual character of the earth deity indicares a duality characteristic of creative gods. The figure's half-closed eyes. are like those of Coyolxauhqui, Moon Goddess, and indicate death. The tongue in the form of a knife with a claw and eye is not only associated with the earth and with sacrifice but also is the tongue of the sun in the Sun Stone (fig. 4). Coatlicue was the mother of the Sun in the form of Huitzilopochtli, solar god associated with war. Another element of sacrifice and death may be seen in the feather balls in the goddess's hair. Is it possible that these elements refer to the death of the deity in her representation of the earth, that is, the death or end of a Sun or cosmogonic period? The hands are both claws and serpent heads. The eyes and fangs seen on the elbows and shoulders again refer to the earth monster. The necklace of four hands and four hearts is the same as that worn by the monumental Coatlicue, with the difference that the central pendant here is a fifth heart and not a skull. The elements of four undoubtedly refer to the cardinal directions and the heart pendant to the center of the earth. While Coatlicue' s tired breasts are seen in her monumental statue and in others that are exhibited in the Mexica Hall, there is no evidence of them in our “Metro” sculpture. This fact, combined with the position of the legs (a position strictly masculine, as may be seen in plate VIII, the god Xochipilli; Mexica goddesses are always represented in a kneeling position like plate VII), leads us to believe that the deity represented is really masculine. The necklace of hands and hearts has served to identify the figure as Coatlicue, but in the monthly feast of Huey Pachtli the priests' costumes were decorated with these two elements. The associated feast of Pachtlontli, in honor of Xochiquetzal, commemorated the birth of Huitzilopochtli. During Huey Pachtli, Iztaccihuatl was honored; this was but another name for Coatlicue-Xochiquetzal. The use of the hands and hearts at this time shows a direct relationship with Huitzilopochtli. Caso has indicated that the skulls and cross bones represent the skirt of the Earth Goddess, as seen in Codex Borgia 44 (fig. 5). This is the short skirt worn by our deity. We feel that the "Coatlicue del Metro" is a figure dedicated to the Earth. It also seems to be a profound expression of duality, as it is male and female, mother (Coatlicue) and son (Huitzilopochtli), Sun and Moon, life and death, fat years and lean (symbolized by the open hands and hearts and the “twisted” skirt of Coatlicue, according to Durán). The many duality characteristics suggest a conclusion that is daring but not impossible: because of the elements of creation present this statue could represent Ometeotl, the divine creative pair.

    Referencias:
    Caso, A. 1927 Las ruinas de Tizatlán, Tlaxcala. Sobretiro del t. I, No. 4, de la Revista Mexicana de Estudios Históricos. Ed. Cultura. México.
    Caso, A. 1967 Los calendarios prehispánicos. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Instituto de Investigaciones Históricas. México.
    Durán, Fray D. de. 1967 Historia de las Indias de Nueva España e islas de la Tierra Firme. Editado por Angel Ma. Garibay K., 2 vols., Ed. Porrúa. México.
    Fernández, J. 1954 Coatlicue, estética del arte indígena antiguo. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Centro de Estudios Filosóficos, Instituto de Investigaciones Estéticas. México.
    Garibay K., A. M. 1940 Poesía indígena de la Altiplanicie. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Biblioteca del Estudiante Universitario, No. 11. México.
    León-Portilla, M. 1958 Ritos, sacerdotes y atavíos de los dioses. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Instituto de Historia: Seminario de Cultura Nahuatl, Fuentes Indígenas de los Informantes de Sahagún: 1. México.
    Martín Arana, R. 1967 Hallazgo de un monolio en las obras de S.T.C. (Metro). Boletín del I.N.A.H., No. 30. México.
    Nicholson, H. B. 1964 Pre-Hispanic Central Mexico: Religion. Handbook of Middle American Indians, vol. IV.
    Sahagún, Fray B. de. 1938 Historia general de las cosas de Nueva España. Introducción de W. Jiménez Moreno. Anotaciones de E. Seler, 5 vols., Ed. Pedro Robredo. México.
    Sahagún, Fray B. de. 1950-1963 Florentine Codex. General History of the Things of New Spain. Traducido del Nahuatl por Arthur J. O. Anderson y Charles E. Dibble. 10 vols. The School of American Research, Santa Fe, New Mexico.
    Seler, E. 1963 Comentarios al Códice Borgia. 3 vols. Fondo de Cultura Económica. México.

    Idioma
    Español

    Temática
    Tópico
    Mitos
    Religión
    Arqueología
    Deidades
    Coatlicue
    Geográfica
    México

    Origen
    Lugar
    Ciudad de México, México
    Fecha de publicación
    1969-02-02
    Editor
    Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia
    Emisión
    Monográfico único

    Autoría
    Doris Heyden (Dirección de Etnología y Antropología Social, INAH)

    Tipo de recurso
    Texto
    Artículo de revista

    Ubicación
    Biblioteca Nacional de Antropología e Historia, Dr. Eusebio Dávalos Hurtado

    Condiciones de uso
    D.R. Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia, México

    Creative Commons License

    Sobre el registro

    Identificadores
    MID
    47_18771231-000000:27_522_7282

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    Fuente
    Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia
    Idioma
    Español

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    Formato del original (GMD)
    Texto
    Origen del recurso digital
    Reformateado digital
    Formato del recurso digital
    Application/pdf
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    Acceso

    Área de procedencia
    Biblioteca Nacional de Antropología e Historia Dr. Eusebio Dávalos Hurtado

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    Título(s)
    Título
    Comentarios sobre la Coatlicue recuperada durante las excavaciones realizadas para la construcción del Metro.
    Anales del Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia. Num. 50 Tomo II (1969) Séptima Época (1967-1976)

    Abstract
    This sculpture (plates I-V) was discovered in September, 1967, during excavations carried out in Mexico City's "Metro". Its total height is 93 cm., its length 57 cm., width 37, and weight approximately 530 k. Today it is on display in the Mexica Hall of the National Museum of Anthropology, where it is called Coatlicue. Coatlicue (also called Toci and by many other names) was the Mother Goddess, having given birth to the Sun, the Moon, the Stars, and all the other gods. She was also associated with the earth, fertility, life, and death. This statue is covered with a wealth of symbols. The face is that of Tlaltecuhtli, earth deity, as seen in plate VI. In different sources Tlaltecuhtli is referred to as female or as male, the latter in the form of a toad-like monster. This monster is carved on the base of the monumental Coatlicue and is seen in the Codex Borbonicus 16 (fig. 1). In the Codex Borgia 34 (fig. 2) Tlaltecuhtli is represented as an old woman with wrinkles around her mouth. The lines on the statue's face represent both these wrinkles and facial paint: Xochiquetzal (the young Mother Goddess, therefore Coatlicue) wears red paint on the Iower part of her face (fig. 3). The bisexual character of the earth deity indicares a duality characteristic of creative gods. The figure's half-closed eyes. are like those of Coyolxauhqui, Moon Goddess, and indicate death. The tongue in the form of a knife with a claw and eye is not only associated with the earth and with sacrifice but also is the tongue of the sun in the Sun Stone (fig. 4). Coatlicue was the mother of the Sun in the form of Huitzilopochtli, solar god associated with war. Another element of sacrifice and death may be seen in the feather balls in the goddess's hair. Is it possible that these elements refer to the death of the deity in her representation of the earth, that is, the death or end of a Sun or cosmogonic period? The hands are both claws and serpent heads. The eyes and fangs seen on the elbows and shoulders again refer to the earth monster. The necklace of four hands and four hearts is the same as that worn by the monumental Coatlicue, with the difference that the central pendant here is a fifth heart and not a skull. The elements of four undoubtedly refer to the cardinal directions and the heart pendant to the center of the earth. While Coatlicue' s tired breasts are seen in her monumental statue and in others that are exhibited in the Mexica Hall, there is no evidence of them in our “Metro” sculpture. This fact, combined with the position of the legs (a position strictly masculine, as may be seen in plate VIII, the god Xochipilli; Mexica goddesses are always represented in a kneeling position like plate VII), leads us to believe that the deity represented is really masculine. The necklace of hands and hearts has served to identify the figure as Coatlicue, but in the monthly feast of Huey Pachtli the priests' costumes were decorated with these two elements. The associated feast of Pachtlontli, in honor of Xochiquetzal, commemorated the birth of Huitzilopochtli. During Huey Pachtli, Iztaccihuatl was honored; this was but another name for Coatlicue-Xochiquetzal. The use of the hands and hearts at this time shows a direct relationship with Huitzilopochtli. Caso has indicated that the skulls and cross bones represent the skirt of the Earth Goddess, as seen in Codex Borgia 44 (fig. 5). This is the short skirt worn by our deity. We feel that the "Coatlicue del Metro" is a figure dedicated to the Earth. It also seems to be a profound expression of duality, as it is male and female, mother (Coatlicue) and son (Huitzilopochtli), Sun and Moon, life and death, fat years and lean (symbolized by the open hands and hearts and the “twisted” skirt of Coatlicue, according to Durán). The many duality characteristics suggest a conclusion that is daring but not impossible: because of the elements of creation present this statue could represent Ometeotl, the divine creative pair.

    Referencias:
    Caso, A. 1927 Las ruinas de Tizatlán, Tlaxcala. Sobretiro del t. I, No. 4, de la Revista Mexicana de Estudios Históricos. Ed. Cultura. México.
    Caso, A. 1967 Los calendarios prehispánicos. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Instituto de Investigaciones Históricas. México.
    Durán, Fray D. de. 1967 Historia de las Indias de Nueva España e islas de la Tierra Firme. Editado por Angel Ma. Garibay K., 2 vols., Ed. Porrúa. México.
    Fernández, J. 1954 Coatlicue, estética del arte indígena antiguo. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Centro de Estudios Filosóficos, Instituto de Investigaciones Estéticas. México.
    Garibay K., A. M. 1940 Poesía indígena de la Altiplanicie. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Biblioteca del Estudiante Universitario, No. 11. México.
    León-Portilla, M. 1958 Ritos, sacerdotes y atavíos de los dioses. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Instituto de Historia: Seminario de Cultura Nahuatl, Fuentes Indígenas de los Informantes de Sahagún: 1. México.
    Martín Arana, R. 1967 Hallazgo de un monolio en las obras de S.T.C. (Metro). Boletín del I.N.A.H., No. 30. México.
    Nicholson, H. B. 1964 Pre-Hispanic Central Mexico: Religion. Handbook of Middle American Indians, vol. IV.
    Sahagún, Fray B. de. 1938 Historia general de las cosas de Nueva España. Introducción de W. Jiménez Moreno. Anotaciones de E. Seler, 5 vols., Ed. Pedro Robredo. México.
    Sahagún, Fray B. de. 1950-1963 Florentine Codex. General History of the Things of New Spain. Traducido del Nahuatl por Arthur J. O. Anderson y Charles E. Dibble. 10 vols. The School of American Research, Santa Fe, New Mexico.
    Seler, E. 1963 Comentarios al Códice Borgia. 3 vols. Fondo de Cultura Económica. México.

    Idioma
    Español

    Temática
    Tópico
    Mitos
    Religión
    Arqueología
    Deidades
    Coatlicue
    Geográfica
    México

    Origen
    Lugar
    Ciudad de México, México
    Fecha de publicación
    1969-02-02
    Editor
    Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia
    Emisión
    Monográfico único

    Autoría
    Doris Heyden (Dirección de Etnología y Antropología Social, INAH)

    Tipo de recurso
    Texto
    Artículo de revista

    Ubicación
    Biblioteca Nacional de Antropología e Historia, Dr. Eusebio Dávalos Hurtado

    Condiciones de uso
    D.R. Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia, México

    Creative Commons License


    Identificadores
    MID
    47_18771231-000000:27_522_7282

    Catalogación
    Fuente
    Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia
    Idioma
    Español

    Digitalización
    Formato del original (GMD)
    Texto
    Origen del recurso digital
    Reformateado digital
    Formato del recurso digital
    Application/pdf
    Calidad del recurso digital
    Acceso

    Área de procedencia
    Biblioteca Nacional de Antropología e Historia Dr. Eusebio Dávalos Hurtado


    Revista Anales del Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia
    Número de revista Anales del Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia. Num. 50 Tomo II (1969) Séptima Época (1967-1976)

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